It is near the start of 1270, and you are taking a degree in theology at the University of Paris; one of your professors is Thomas Aquinas who is already five years into writing his Summa Theologica. Though nearly always busy, the Angelic Doctor, as he is affectionately called, is sitting along the Left Bank of the Seine River, looking toward the foundations of Notre Dame, nearly a century old and two more centuries away till its completion in 1345. You have his attention and will analyze his recent writings about the soul and the nature of the soul and how much Aristotle contributed to his view. As a sympathetic but contrarian student of theology, summarize his position on the soul, identify the core issue, give your own thesis and defense, and relate any of Aquinas’s objections and your replies to the theologian.
1. If the highest end of virtue is that which aims at the advancement of most, gentleness is the most lovely of all, which does not hurt even those whom it condemns, and usually renders those whom it condemns worthy of absolution. Moreover, it is the only virtue which has led to the increase of the Church which the Lord sought at the price of His own Blood, imitating the lovingkindness of heaven, and aiming at the redemption of all, seeks this end with a gentleness which the ears of men can endure, in presence of which their hearts do not sink, nor their spirits quail.
Besides, if one party is “accidentally” taking advantage of another party, it should not be said to be unlawful or sinful either in the case of if one person gets something from the other person, they reach a consensus and the deal is done; then the buyer sells it to another person at the same price. No parties are harmed because the original seller is not at a loss. However, if this is a pawn shop, a father is selling the heirloom he has got to save his dying son’s life, no matter the shop owner gives him a fair amount of money or just little money; there is legal regulation to protect both parties.